Astronomy in Ukraine − Past, Present, and Future (MAO-2014)

July 17, 2014, Kyiv, Ukraine

The Conference devoted to the 70th anniversary

of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Final announcement

Conference Timetable


08:30 - 09:00	Registration...

09:00 - 10:00   Invited talks (2 x 30 min.):

- Erik Hog (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark)
  Absolute astrometry in the next 50 years Abstract	
------------------------------------------------------ Erik Hog. "Absolute astrometry in the next 50 years" With Gaia in orbit since December 2013 it is time to look at the future of fundamental astrometry and a time frame of 50 years is needed in this matter. Eleven science issues for a Gaia successor mission in twenty years are presented and in this context the possibilities for absolute astrometry with mas or sub-mas accuracies are discussed. In brief, the two Gaia-like missions would provide an astrometric foundation for all branches of astronomy from the solar system and stellar systems to compact galaxies, quasars and dark matter (DM) by data which cannot be surpassed the next 50 years. The presentation is based on: The astrometric foundation of astrophysics Absolute astrometry in the next 50 years --------------------------------------------------------
- Zhengxin Li (Shanghai Obs., CAS, China) New role of ground astrometry in space era. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Zhengxin Li. "New role of ground astrometry in space era" Space techniques have replaced most of the functions which were once uniquely executed by ground based astrometry techniques. Is there any future for the ground based astrometry technique now? During the 21st General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a resolution was passed by Commission 19 in which it was stated that 'astrometric observations provide a unique set of data sensitive to variations in the deflection of the vertical. . .'. This is the only special case observation that must be performed by ground based astronometry. This is an important observation and must be preserved, it's future depends on the following: [1] Is the magnitude of the variations in the deflection of the vertical meaningful enough to be determined in practice? [2] If it is so, what is the cause of these variations? Can we determine them by astrometry techniques? [3] If the variations are significant, then what is the usage of these determined variations in Sciences and Technologies? The paper summarize the works have been done in China. More and more evidence is showing that astrometry may play an role in providing observations of the variations in the deflection of the vertical which is related to the mass changing underground, for example, the mass migration before and after an earthquake in northern China. Thus the techniques may be useful in predicting earthquakes, as well as monitoring underground water and other phenomena which are essential for the health and safety of millions people. In the past astronomers have looked either into the sky or on the ground's surface. Now might be the time to look into the ground and this technique may find a useful purpose and future. --------------------------------------------------------
10:00 - 11:00 Invited talks (3 x 20 min.): - Irina Belskaya (Inst. of Astr., Kharkiv Nat. Univ.) From Asteroids to Transneptunian Objects: an Overview of Physical Properties. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Irina Belskaya. "From Asteroids to Transneptunian Objects: an Overview of Physical Properties" Asteroids and transneptunian objects (TNOs), that form two belts of small bodies in the inner and outer parts of the Solar system, are believed to contain fossil remnants from its early stage. Their investigation has a key value for understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Study of small Solar system bodies has achieved significant advances during last decade. Observational data have increased exponentially thanks to large ground-based telescopes and space missions. An overview of physical properties will be given for various dynamical groups of objects, including Near-Earth objects, main belt asteroids, Trojans, Centaurs, and transneptunian objects. --------------------------------------------------------
- Yuriy Voitenko (Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Belgium) Solar wind turbulence from MHD to kinetic scales.Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Yuriy Voitenko. "Solar wind turbulence from MHD to kinetic scales" Alfven waves and turbulence provide an important source for energy transport and release in solar-terrestrial plasmas. An intrinsic property of nonlinear interactions among MHD Alfvenic fluctuations is an anisotropic spectral transfer of energy toward progressively smaller wavelengths perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. High-resolution Cluster observations of the solar wind turbulence have revealed that the turbulent cascade is not terminated at the so-called high-frequency spectral break, but extends further into the kinetic-scale range. The resulting turbulence at small kinetic scales is dominated by highly oblique kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs). We develop the theory of the turbulence transition from MHD to kinetic scales. Nonlinear interactions among KAWs produce spectra that are significantly steeper than the Kolmogorov-like MHD turbulent spectra with the slope -5/3. In the asymptotic kinetic range, well below the ion gyroradius scale, the spectral index of the strong turbulence is -7/3. However, in the intermediate range between the asymptotic MHD and kinetic ranges we found even steeper spectra with the slope -3 formed by weakly dispersive KAWs [Voitenko and De Keyser, 2011]. The resulting double-kink spectral pattern is often seen in the turbulent spectra measured by Cluster. The intermediate-range KAWs interact with particles efficiently and give rise to various non-thermal features in the particle velocity distributions. In particular, the proton (and heavier ions) distributions are affected by KAWs and deviate significantly from the Maxwellian ones in the velocity range covered by the KAW phase velocities [Voitenko and Pierrard, 2013]. Proton beams, extended anti- sunward tails, and several other non-thermal features observed in the solar wind are thus a natural consequence of the kinetic- scale Alfvenic turbulence. --------------------------------------------------------
- Sergey Marchenko (Sci. Systems and Applications. & Goddard SFC, NASA) Sun as a Star: Spectral Variability in the UV-VIS Range.Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Sergey Marchenko. "Sun as a Star: Spectral Variability in the UV-VIS Range" The excellent stability of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on board the Aura satellite allows us to reveal and monitor both short-term (solar rotation) and long-term (solar cycle) changes of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) between 265-500 nm during the current Cycle 24, from 2009 to the present. SSI variability in the relatively line-free regions amounts to ~0.6% +/- 0.2% around 265 nm, gradually diminishing to 0.15% +/- 0.20% at 500 nm. This gradual decline of variability is also followed by all prominent spectral lines and blends, with a remarkable exception of upper-Balmer lines. Besides the spectral features with known presence of a strong chromospheric component (Mg II, Ca II), the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH and CN molecular bands. We demonstrate that in the 265-500 nm range the magnitudes and spectral dependencies of short-term (rotational) and long- term (solar cycle) SSI changes are generally consistent, with only a hint of wavelength-dependent deviations. Comparison of the extensive data sets shows good repeatability of the SSI variability patterns in the Solar Cycles 21-24. --------------------------------------------------------
11:00 - 11:30 Short coffee / tee break + cookies 11:30 - 13:30 Invited talks (4 x 30 min.): - Leonid Ksanfomality (Space Res. Inst. RAS, Russia) Planets of Solar System and Exoplanets: from Venus to Oceanic Planets. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Planetans - Oceanic Planets L.V.Ksanfomality. Space Research Institute, Moscow The analysis of experimental data obtained in studies of extrasolar low-mass planets indicates that there is one more class of celestial bodies-planetans-oceanic planets with global water oceans that have high, but subcritical, temperatures. A convenient method of analysis is using of entropy-entalphy diagram. The atmospheres of planetans should be composed mainly of water vapor under high pressure. The number of detected planetans will grow as new exoplanets with masses of 1-5 Earth masses are discovered. The properties of some low-mass objects that were determined using different methods, including Kepler-11, Kepler-22, GJ 1214b, and Gl 581g, differ appreciably. The exoplanet GJ 1214b cannot be a planetan. On the contrary, properties of a planetan may have the exoplanet GL 581g, if it spherical albedo reaches a value of 0.86 (like of some of Jupiter and Saturn satellites). The radiation of the star Gl 581 itself is mainly concentrated in the IR range, making the photolysis of water vapor in the upper atmospheric layers of Gl 581g inefficient. For this reason, the exoplanet Gl 581g does not loss appreciable water on a cosmogonic timescale. On the contrary, it is shown that the identification of GJ 1214b with the model of a planetans (as an object with low mean density) seems to be erroneous. An alternative model of the structure of GJ 1214b suggests the existence of a silicate-metal core with a density of 13 g/cm3 and a radius of 5000 km and a middle layer with a density of 9 g/cm3 and a radius of 10000 km. The middle layer includes a mixture of volatile substances, mostly water, with traces of methane and ammonia. Its dense atmosphere corresponds to the observed diameter of the exoplanet, extending to 7500 km. A possible habitability of planetans is considered. References: Ksanfomality L.V. 2014 Solar System Research, 48 (1), 79 --------------------------------------------------------
- Evgeny Polyachenko (Inst. of Astr., RAS, Russia) Theories of spiral structure in galaxies. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Evgeny Polyachenko. "Theories of spiral structure in galaxies" In the talk we trace the onset and formation of the theory of spiral structure of galaxies from the classical works of Jeans and Lindblad to the present day. The main part of the report is devoted to the confrontation of quasi-stationary density waves approach to approach utilizing transient spirals. Besides we consider alternative theories of spiral structure formation such as MHD theory, Fridman hydrodynamical conjecture and shallow water experiments, and various theories of bar formation in SB- galaxies including fast and slow bars. We consider the problem of constructing a dynamic model and the current understanding of the Milky Way spiral structure, as well as the expected results due to the launch of new space telescopes. --------------------------------------------------------
- Jacek Krelowski (Center for Astr., Nicholas Coper. Univ., Torun, Poland) Kinematics of the outer parts of the galactic disc - the role of possible Dark Matter. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Jacek Krelowski. "Kinematics of the outer parts of the galactic disc - the role of possible Dark Matter" The mysterious Dark Matter is currently being called the Saint Graal of science. The estimates of its mass give the values many times higher than that of the "traditional" baryonic matter. However, all attempts to detect this form of matter directly (not via its gravity) failed. One of the serious problem follows the fact that the crucial evidence of the Dark Matter follows flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies. While building such a curve for our Milky Way, the main source of uncertainty follows the distance measurements. Basing on the huge collection of echelle spectra of OB stars we demonstrated that distances to the thin disc objects (OB stars, interstellar clouds being revealed by CaII absorptions) can be reliably estimated using intensities of interstellar CaII H and K lines. The same lines allow also to measure Doppler shifts to the most distant clouds along any sightline with the precision much higher than in the case of stellar spectra as the latter are influenced by fast rotation and binarity of many OB stars. The talk will demonstrate that even the existing data create serious doubts as to the existence of Dark Matter: the rotation curves of young, disk population objects clearly follow keplerian rather than flat rotation curve of the Milky Way. The result is based on a statistically significant sample of objects, situated in the most interesting directions in the galactic disk, namely l = 135 deg., l = 180 deg and l = 225 deg. The first two ones are available from the Terskol Observatory. Our result, creating serious doubts on whether our Galaxy is embedded in the dark halo, is based mostly on the spectra from this Observatory. --------------------------------------------------------
- Igor Karachentsev (SAO RAS, Russia) Star Formation rate in the local volume galaxies. Abstract
------------------------------------------------------ Igor Karachentsev. "Star Formation rate in the local volume galaxies" A distance-limited sample of 869 objects from the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog is used to characterize the star formation status of the Local Volume population. I present estimates of star formation rate (SFR) for 802 galaxies within 11 Mpc, derived from the H-alfa imaging survey with the 6-m BTA telescope and the far- ultraviolet survey with GALEX. I briefly discuss some basic scaling relations between the SFRs and galaxy luminosity, morphology, HI-mass, surface brightness, as well as environment. About 3/4 of our sample consist of dwarf galaxies. It is noted that the specific SFR of nearly all luminous and dwarf galaxies does not exceed the maximum value: log(SFR/M*)= -0.4 [Gy-1]. Most spirals and blue dwarfs have enough amount of gas to support their observed SFR over the next Hubble term. Only a 5% - fraction of {BCD, Im, Ir} - galaxies proceed in a mode of vigorous starburst activity. In general, the star formation history of the late-type galaxies is mainly driven by their internal processes. The present SFRs of {E, S0, dSph} - galaxies are typically ~1/100 of their former activity. --------------------------------------------------------
13:30 - 14:00 Lunch break + snacks + coffee / tee + cookies 14:00 - 16:00 MAO report. NASU VFA. 16:00 - 18:00 Invited dinner. ------------------------------------------------

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Ludmila Pakuliak or Marina Ishchenko.

Pakuliak Ludmila

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